An Unusual Approach to Variable Geometry




Earlier than jets sported swing wings, an early Russian designer took a novel strategy to variable-geometry wingspans in a sequence of French-built airplanes.
The notion of altering the geometry of an airplane’s wings in flight to reinforce its efficiency has lengthy plane designers. They’ve understood {that a} aircraft with smaller wings might fly sooner, however bigger wings would allow decrease stalling, takeoff and touchdown speeds in addition to greater altitudes. Over time many novel types of variable geometry have been devised to get the most effective of each worlds from one set of wings. Among the many extra uncommon approaches was an idea pioneered by Russian engineer Ivan Makhonin (generally referred to in France as Jean Makhonine) through the interwar years.
Born in St. Petersburg in 1885, Ivan Ivanovich Makhonin graduated from engineering faculty earlier than World Conflict I. Dur­ ing that battle he helped design quite a lot of weapons for the Russian army, together with rockets, armor­piercing bullets and aerial torpedoes. After the Russian Revolution he labored to revive the nationwide railroad system, together with the design of latest locomotives. A few of his railroad initiatives didn’t work out in addition to anticipated, nevertheless, and a brand new large airship that he designed ended up being cancelled. Discovering himself out of favor with the brand new authorities, Makhonin and his spouse emi­grated to France in 1921.
The improved Mak-101 of 1935. (HistoryNet Archives)
The improved Mak-101 of 1935. (HistoryNet Archives)
Makhonin persuaded the French authorities to again an concept he had for distilling liquid gas out of coal. He arrange a distillation plant in 1926, but it surely was shut down the following yr because of dangerous ranges of poisonous emissions.
In 1929 Makhonin entered the aeronautic area when he proposed an airplane with telescoping wings that might prolong in span from 42 toes 8 inches to 69 toes, increas­ing the wing space from 230 to 360 sq. toes. French authorities officers have been sufficiently intrigued to fund building of a prototype.
First flown on August 11. 1931, the Makhonin Mak-10 was a big, two-­seat, low­ wing monoplane. The wings’ middle part, which was cleanly faired into the fuse­lage, terminated in thick rein­ pressured cuffs via which the outer wing panels professional­truded barely. Ailerons have been hooked up to the trailing fringe of the middle part, as was the neatly faired fastened touchdown gear. The outer wing panels prolonged and retracted on a set of bearings alongside the wing spars inside the middle part, both pneumatically or, if that system failed, man­ually. Precisely how Makhonin managed to alleviate the stress on the outer panels is unclear.
The Could 13, 1932, subject of the British aviation journal Flight printed an in depth article extolling the Mak-10’s distinctive design: “To us plainly if one is to derive any worthwhile profit from a variable wing, the higher approach to sort out the issue is through the variable span. In spite of everything…we all know that span loading performs a really massive half within the effectivity of a wing, particularly at low speeds, the place we all know that the span loading determines the induced drag. One admires M. Makhonine for a really daring and ingenious piece of labor, and hopes that he’ll be capable of proceed this attention-grabbing experiment.”
The Mak-10 was powered by a single 450-hp Lorraine-Dietrich 12Eb 12-cylinder liquid-cooled engine. Weighing in at 11,023 kilos gross, the plane was considerably underpowered, however with the outer wing panels retracted it reached a velocity of 233 mph. In any case, the Mak-10 was by no means meant for manufacturing; it was an experimental testbed to show the feasibility of its telescoping wing panels.
After 4 years of take a look at flying, the Mak-10 was returned to the manufacturing unit for enhancements. In 1935 it emerged because the Mak-101 with enclosed cockpits, retractable touchdown gear and an 800-hp Gnome-Rhône 14K Mistral Main radial that elevated velocity to 240 mph.
Makhonin’s concepts captured the imaginations of no less than some among the many French aeronautical group. In 1937 Charles Gourdou, previously codirector of the plane producer Gourdou-Leseurre, designed a single-seat fighter with Makhonin-style telescoping wings. Powered by a 1,050- hp Hispano-Suiza 12Y liquid-cooled engine, the G-11 C-1 was anticipated to achieve 422 mph at 22,000 toes, with a variety of 1,242 miles. Gourdou’s personal firm had gone out of enterprise three years earlier, nevertheless, and he was unable to acquire monetary backing. Consequently, the G-11 was by no means constructed.
The Mak-10’s wings could be extended and retracted pneumatically or manually. (HistoryNet Archives)
The Mak-10’s wings might be prolonged and retracted pneumatically or manually. (HistoryNet Archives)
The Mak-101 continued flying till Germany overran France in June 1940. The Germans, in flip, ordered testing to proceed and in 1941 they determined to fly the Mak-101 to Rechlin for additional research. Makhonin persuaded them to allow one closing verify flight earlier than its departure, throughout which his take a look at pilot intentionally crashed-landed it. Saved in a hangar at Villacoublay, the broken Mak-101 was finally destroyed throughout an American bombing raid.
Regardless of his act of sabotage, Makhonin survived the warfare and reappeared in 1947 with yet one more French-funded telescoping-wing prototype. The Mak-123 was an excellent bigger single-engine, low-wing monoplane with seating for 4 in tandem inside an enclosed cockpit. Powered by a surplus German 1,800-hp BMW 801 radial, the plane weighed 15,432 kilos empty and 22,046 kilos absolutely loaded. The wingspan diversified from 42 toes 8 inches to 65 toes 7 inches, and the wing mechanism was powered by its personal 1⁄4-hp motor.
Throughout one take a look at flight, the pilot allegedly switched off the engine at 13,000 toes, prolonged the wings and glided for an hour. On a subsequent flight, nevertheless, the Mak-123 suffered an engine failure and crash-landed in a farmer’s area, damaging the prototype past restore.
With Makhonin unable to safe additional funding from the French authorities, that accident marked the termination of his attention-grabbing experiments in variable geometry. In any case, the jet age had arrived and the emphasis had switched from various wingspan to various the angle of sweep. Experiments with variable-sweep wings on the Bell X-5, first flown in 1951, finally led to manufacturing swing-wing plane such because the Normal Dynamics F-111, Grumman F-14 Tomcat and Panavia Twister.
This text appeared within the March 2021 subject of Aviation Historical past. To subscribe, click on right here!



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