When Paris first heard American jazz, it’s – from our perspective – unimaginable to make sense of the cultural thunderbolt that will need to have hit audiences. This music was so wholly completely different to European ears that it was both scornfully rejected or eagerly accepted.The jazz rage didn’t specific any curiosity in politics, however opponents turned it right into a factional argument. They denigrated the style as a product of an inferior tradition. Regardless of such racially motivated wrath, European composers of differing backgrounds integrated the style into their musical language. For them, the association of its tones, timbre, and harmonies had been synonymous with modernity.Conventional BackgroundComposer Darius Milhaud was blown over by experiencing the enjoyment of jazz. For him, music had too lengthy been dominated by the poetic delicacy of Impressionism. Jazz, in his personal phrases, got here to his technology as an excellent shock, like ‘a chilly bathe when you’ve got been half asleep with ennui.’ What made the following growth in music intriguing is the mixing of ‘severe’ excessive artwork with the uncooked vitality of the unconventional new.Born in Marseille right into a Jewish household that descended from the Provence, Milhaud would present a lifelong attachment to Provençale music (his Suite Provençale dates from 1936). His musical schooling was European within the conventional method. He attended the Paris Conservatory as a violinist and studied privately with Vincent d’Indy. Uneasy with the musical established order, he was drawn in direction of the modernism of Erik Satie and different younger composers.His identify turned recognized in musical circles when he was grouped with 5 different modernist composers who labored in Montparnasse (together with Arthur Honegger and Francis Poulenc) underneath the sobriquet Les Six. All of them resisted Richard Wagner’s insufferable dominance in music; in addition they reacted in opposition to the “dreamy” presence of Debussy and Ravel.In 1917, Darius was employed as secretary to the outstanding writer Paul Claudel who was French Ambassador to Brazil. Milhaud would collaborate with Claudel on numerous inventive initiatives. Extra importantly, South America launched him to the allure of non-European melodies, rhythms, and dances.On his return to Paris in 1919 he experimented with integrating Brazilian tunes in his personal compositions. Rio de Janeiro had made him conscious of a brand new spectrum of in style and folks music, however there was extra to come back.On varied events in later life, Milhaud said that he first heard jazz in France in 1919. One can solely assume that the event was a live performance by the band of James Reese [Jim] Europe.Harlem HellfightersThe 369th infantry Regiment, fashioned from the fifteenth New York Nationwide Guard Regiment, was generally known as the all-black “Harlem Hellfighters.” When america entered the First World Warfare, many African-Individuals hoped that their participation may finish discrimination. Serving their nation in battle would acquire respect from their white compatriots.The Regiment spent 191 days in French entrance line trenches, greater than every other American unit, struggling 1,500 casualties in fight. As soon as the troopers returned residence, racial rigidity had not dissipated and remained rampant. Our historical past textbooks are disturbingly silent on sure points.Jim Europe was amongst those that joined the battle effort. Born in Cellular, Alabama, Europe moved to New York in 1904 the place he established his identify as a bandleader who composed and carried out songs for ballroom stars Irene and Vernon Citadel that made the Fox Trot the brand new rage.In 1910, Jim Europe organized the Clef Membership which solely carried out music by black composers. Two years later, the Membership made historical past when it performed a proto-jazz live performance at Carnegie Corridor, a major second within the historical past of American jazz and black musicianship.When Jim’s regiment was assigned to the French Military, machine gun commander lieutenant Europe was commissioned to direct the regimental band. He was assisted by his sergeant and lead singer Noble Lee Sissle. In February and March 1918, Jim Europe and his navy band traveled over 2,000 miles in France, performing for French, British, and American troupes, in addition to for wounded troopers and civilians.The band appeared in a particular live performance at Chalons-sur-Marne on the Fourth of July in 1919, underneath the course of assistant-conductor Eugene Markell (Reese had been gassed and was unable to look). Over 500 troopers and civilians packed the outside live performance location close to the railway station. The live performance featured Nobel Sissle on vocals in his final wartime efficiency.France was hit by “ragtimitis.”On PatrolAfter the battle, Jim Europe led his Hellfighters band (all of whom had been embellished by the French authorities) within the nation’s welcome of returning personnel. Over 1,000,000 followers, watching the parade up the town of New York’s Fifth Avenue in mid-February 1919, saluted the heroes of the 369th Infantry as they marched from Madison Sq. to Harlem.Europe’s composition “On Patrol in No Man’s Land,” written as he recovered in a discipline hospital, was recorded by Pathé in March 1919 after his return from France [listen here]. It was by far essentially the most profitable of the eleven recordings the Infantry Jazz Band made for the recording firm.Shortly after, the band scheduled an intensive tour of the nation which was marketed as “The Band That Set All France Jazz Mad!”On the night time of Might 9, 1919, Europe carried out for the final time at Boston’s Mechanics Corridor. Through the interval he had a verbal disagreement together with his drummer Herbert Wright who misplaced management of his mood. He stabbed Europe within the neck with a penknife. On the hospital, they might not cease the bleeding and he died hours later.The funeral march befell in New York, the primary public memorial service held for a black particular person within the metropolis’s historical past. James Reese Europe was buried with full navy honors at Arlington Cemetery in Washington D.C.Respect & ContinuityHaving been launched to American jazz, Milhaud was so captivated by the potential and vitality of the style that he determined to discover the music’s inventive supply. In January 3, 1922 he arrived on the Ocean liner SS Rochambeau in New York, visited Harlem, and frolicked with jazz musicians and singers in golf equipment and bars. It left a long-lasting affect on his musical outlook.After returning to France, he adopted what he described as a jazz idiom by coloring his compositions with recollections of New York. His ardour is obvious in lots of compositions for its blues tonality, swinging passages, and beating rhythms.The go to to Harlem impressed La création du monde. The libretto by Blaise Cendrars outlines the creation of the world based mostly on African folks mythology. Commissioned by Rolf de Maré, chief of the profitable Ballets Suédois (Swedish ballet group) in Paris, and with eye-catching units and costumes derived from African artwork by Fernand Léger, the premiere befell on October 25, 1923 at Théâtre des Champs-Élysées.The efficiency was met with modest success. The importance of La création was that the identical Swedish producer, on the similar theater, tried one other present on an identical theme, La revue nègre, which might culminate in Josephine Baker’s supreme reign in Paris.The invasion of France by Nazi Germany compelled Milhaud to take his Jewish household to america the place he secured a instructing submit at Mills Faculty in Oakland, California. He returned the musical (jazz) praise from France to America.Pianist Dave Brubeck turned Milhaud’s adoring pupil after he had arrived at Mills Faculty to additional his musical research within the Nineteen Forties. He would identify his first son Darius.Illustrations, from above: drawing of Darius Milhaud, January 1944 by Marion Claudel; Les Six; James Reese Europe, the Citadel Stroll music written for ballrooms giants Vernon and Irene Citadel (Music Division, the New York Public Library); James Reese Europe & Harlem Hellfighters 369th Regt. Band; James Reese Europe sheet music (Library of Congress); and Darius Milhaud and Dave Brubeck.