The Timing of Al Gore’s Concession in 2000


Election night time on November 7, 2000, was complicated, particularly for the press.  The Related Press and tv networks first referred to as Florida for Vice President Al Gore after which retracted that decision two hours later. Nicely after midnight, the tv networks then referred to as Florida (and with it the presidency) for Texas Governor George W. Bush, after which a number of hours later – nonetheless earlier than morning – retracted that projection.  Someplace alongside the way in which, Gore referred to as Bush twice, as soon as to concede and as soon as to retract that concession.
Bush’s obvious victory margin in Florida was skinny, slightly below 1800 votes, effectively inside the half of a share level that might set off an automated statewide machine recount. Gore’s chief marketing campaign supervisor introduced, “the marketing campaign continues.”
Gore’s Recount Technique
On November ninth, Gore requested an extra hand recount in 4 counties, which was allowed beneath Florida legislation. These counties, predictably, have been Gore pleasant counties: Broward, Miami Dade, Palm Seashore, and Volusia. On at the present time, it grew to become clear that Gore had gained the nationwide standard vote.
Democrats additionally pointed to irregularities in Palm Seashore’s “butterfly” poll, and these irregularities appeared to trigger some Gore supporters to accidently vote for Reform Occasion candidate Pat Buchanan. Ultimately, this controversy didn’t proceed by the top of the competition. It might have quickly helped within the court docket of public opinion, however any profit was undermined by the later information that Democrats in Palm Seashore had designed the poll.
In the meantime, Florida Secretary of State Katherine Harris, a Republican, introduced that she wouldn’t prolong Florida’s deadline to certify the outcomes and that hand counted tallies wouldn’t be included.  That deadline was November 14th.  At this level, Bush and Republicans wished the vote licensed, whereas Gore and Democrats didn’t.
The machine recount ended on the subsequent day, November tenth, with Bush profitable, however now by a lead of 327 votes. This lead would develop to 930 the subsequent week when absentee ballots arrived and have been counted.
The Contest Enters the Courts, as Hand Recounts Go Ahead
The hand recount started in two counties on November twelfth, and on November 14th, a Florida circuit court docket dominated that November 14th deadline was necessary until Harris used her discretion to alter it.  On November fifteenth, Harris collected all of the votes, however on the subsequent day the Florida Supreme Courtroom blocked Harris from certifying these outcomes.  On November 21, the Florida Supreme Courtroom additional dominated that Harris needed to await the hand recounts and set November twenty sixth because the deadline for these recounts to be concluded. In response, Bush petitioned the US Supreme Courtroom on November twenty second, arguing that the Florida Supreme Courtroom had rewritten Florida election legislation in violation of US Statute and the Structure. Two days later the Courtroom agreed to listen to Bush’s case.
Within the meantime, Gore gained votes within the Broward recount, however Palm Seashore and Miami-Dade counties determined they may not full their recounts in time.  In Miami-Dade, election officers determined to rely solely “undervotes,” ballots the place no vote had been recorded.  On November twenty sixth, Florida Secretary of State Harris licensed Bush’s victory, thus resisting Democratic calls to additional prolong the deadline, and on the subsequent day Gore filed an official request to contest these outcomes.
On December 4th, the Supreme Courtroom remanded the November 21 ruling of Florida’s Supreme Courtroom again to that court docket for reconsideration.  Particularly, the upper court docket puzzled whether or not the Florida court docket had primarily based its ruling on the Florida structure reasonably than on Florida statute. On the identical day, a Florida decide rejected Gore’s request to contest the election on the grounds that Gore had no cheap path to victory.
However this was not the top.  Gore appealed to the Florida Supreme Courtroom, and, on December eighth, that court docket gave Gore the victory he had lengthy sought: in a 4 to a few resolution, interesting to Florida statute, the bulk dominated that each undervote in Florida needed to be recounted. In the meantime, on the identical day, the Republican Florida legislature convened for a particular session, simply in case their providers in choosing a slate of Electors have been wanted. Republicans feared that Democratic election officers would manipulate undervotes in a approach favorable to Gore.
On the subsequent day, the US Supreme Courtroom ordered that this recount cease till that court docket may think about Bush’s enchantment of the Florida court docket’s ruling.  On December twelfth, in Bush v. Gore, the US Supreme Courtroom ended the authorized controversy.  Seven justices dominated that the recount offered constitutional issues by recounting some votes as a substitute of others, and 5 justices dominated that these issues couldn’t be surmounted in time for Florida to satisfy the “protected harbor” date required beneath US legislation.  Beneath a legislation handed in 1948, the states should make their “ultimate dedication” of Electors no less than six days earlier than Electors meet. Electors meet on the primary Monday after the second Wednesday in December. In 2000, that protected harbor date was December twelfth. [Editors’ note: This year, in 2020, the safe harbor date was Tuesday, December 8.]
Gore Accepts the “Finality of the End result”
In a televised handle someday later, on December thirteenth, Gore “accepted the finality of the result” of the Supreme Courtroom resolution and “supplied his concession.” On January 6, 2001, in his position as vice-president, Gore presided over the counting of the Electoral Faculty votes earlier than each chambers of Congress, thus constitutionalizing Bush because the winner.
Looking back, it’s clear that Gore’s post-election technique required any election contest to be resolved by Democrats on the Florida Supreme Courtroom.  Bush had extra choices.  Republicans managed the Florida state legislature in addition to the vast majority of state delegations within the Home of Representatives.  Republicans additionally held a majority on the US Supreme Courtroom.
And what of the media’s position in calling the election?  It must be talked about {that a} consortium of main media firms examined what would have occurred if Gore had gained in court docket and the recount continued, releasing their findings in fall of 2001. By their findings, a recount of undervotes, carried out beneath the usual requested by Gore, would nonetheless have resulted in a Bush victory.  That’s, the Supreme Courtroom didn’t “resolve” the election of 2000.  Mockingly, the media consortium discovered that Gore may have gained had he pursued a recount technique primarily based on “overvotes” (that’s, on ballots on which a couple of candidate for President was marked) as a substitute of undervotes, however this technique was by no means pursued.
Word: This abstract benefited from two books, The Good Tie: The True Story of the 2000 Presidential Election, by James W. Ceaser and Andrew E. Busch, in addition to The Vote: Bush, Gore, & the Supreme Courtroom, edited by Cass R. Sunstein and Richard A. Epstein.


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