The First Thanksgiving—Truth or Fiction?

The story of the primary Thanksgiving that the majority of us discovered in grade college romanticizes the friendship between the Pilgrims who settled in New England and the indigenous folks already occupying the land. But there’s some reality within the story.

A 1925 recreation of Jennie August Brownscombe’s 1914 portray, “The First Thanksgiving at Plymouth.” The recreation omits the Plains Indians headdresses she initially gave to the shadowy Indian figures within the background at left. Nationwide Museum of Girls within the Arts, Present of Wallace and Wilhelmina Holladay. https://nmwa.org/artwork/assortment/thanksgiving-plymouth/.

The Pilgrims landed on the shore of Cape Cod a yr earlier than the well-known harvest feast of 1621 that’s thought-about the idea of our Thanksgiving vacation. Their ill-timed arrival at first of winter was initially attributable to bother with one in every of their ships, the Speedwell. After six weeks at sea, it had taken on a lot water that the complete Pilgrim social gathering needed to return to England and regroup into one vessel, the Mayflower. On this ship they departed Plymouth, England in September of 1620, desiring to settle close to the Hudson River. They thought this might place them within the already established colony of Virginia. Tough seas and storms diverted them northward to Cape Cod, the place they landed in November.

Professor Jace Weaver, editor of the brand new TAH doc assortment Native People, writes:

Although relations between the Pilgrims and the Wampanoag Indians, in whose territory they settled, had been initially cautious, mutual want drove them collectively. The Pilgrims and Wampanoag sachem (chief) Massasoit solid a partnership that continued via Massasoit’s lifetime, however deteriorated after his dying in 1661. The Indians taught the newcomers to outlive by planting corn and catching and consuming lobsters. The English supplied a a lot wanted, if largely symbolic, ally to the Wampanoag in opposition to neighboring tribes.

Portrait drawing of King Philip (Metacomet), New England sachem, by Jacques Reich (undoubtedly primarily based on a piece by one other artist). Appletons’ Cyclopædia of American Biography, 1900, v. four, p. 755. Wikimedia Commons.

When in 1636 struggle first broke out between the settlers and the Indians, it was struggle not with the Massasoit however with the Pequot, a robust neighboring tribe who managed the commerce in wampum, shell beads that had change into the forex of trade between the European settlers and the Indians. One explanation for this struggle was an English effort to interrupt up the Pequot monopoly in wampum. Weaver writes, “Whereas there have been provocations on each side, the English, who more and more not wanted the Natives, bore the bigger share of the blame.” Though the Massasoit had been allied with the English in 1636, by 1675 the Massasoit bore appreciable grievances in opposition to the colonists. Their complaints had been heard and recorded by John Easton, deputy governor of the colony of Rhode Island and Windfall Plantations, who recounted them in his historical past of King’s Philip Struggle, fought from 1675 to 1676. Easton’s account, titled “Metacomet Explains the Causes of King Philip’s Struggle,” is Doc 2 in Weaver’s assortment.

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